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Windows 1.0:

Windows 1.0 was released on
November 20, 1985.

CGA/Hercules/EGA (or compatible)
MS-DOS 2.0
256 KB Ram
2 double-sided disk drives or
a hard drive

The first version of Microsoft Windows
included a simple graphics painting
program called Windows Paint;
Windows Write, a simple word
processor
 an appointment calendar;
a card-filer; a notepad; a clock;
a control panel; a computer terminal;
Clipboard; and RAM driver.

Microsoft Windows computing boxes,
or
windows represented a fundamental
aspect of the operating system.
Instead of typing MS-DOS commands
 
windows 1.0 allowed users to point and
click to access the windows.

Windows 1.0 was Microsoft's attempt at a
graphical multitasking operating system
for the IBM PC.
Effectively a front end to MS-DOS,
Windows 1.0 could run multiple DOS
based applications.


The system requirements for
Windows 1.0:


 
MS-DOS 2.0, 256 kB of RAM, an EGA
graphics adapter, two floppy disk drives
or a hard drive.



 

 

Windows 2.1:

Windows 2.1 was released on
May 27, 1988.

Versions 2.0x used the real-mode
memory model, which confined it
to a maximum of 1 megabyte
of memory.

In such a configuration, it could
run under another multitasker like
DESQview, which used the 286
Processor.

MS-DOS version 3.0 or later
512 K RAM
One floppy-disk and one hard disk
Graphics adapter card
Microsoft mouse is optional






Windows 3.1:

In 1992 Microsoft released version 3.1
of its MS-DOS graphical shell turned
operating system.
Windows 3.1 became the first version
of Windows to be widely distributed
with new PCs, cementing the dominance
of Microsoft's OS on the IBM PC platform and
signaling the dawn of the Golden Age
of Windows.


System requirements for standard
mode are:

* Intel 286 (or higher) processor
* 1 MB or more of memory (640K conventional
and 256K extended)
* 6.5 MB of free disk space
(9 MB is recommended)

System requirements for enhanced
mode are:


* Intel 386 (or higher) processor
* 2 MB or more of memory (640K
conventional and 1024K extended)
* 8 MB of of free disk space
(10.5 MB is recommended)


Windows 3.1 did not introduce much of
anything new over Windows 3.0.
Windows 3.1, however, was the first really
widely used version of Microsoft Windows.

Windows 1 and 2 were heavily ignored or
viewed as little more than yet another
DOS shell.

Even Microsoft's original intention
was to replace Windows 2.x with OS/2.
However, after IBM and Microsoft went
their separate ways Microsoft focused
on delivering Windows 3.x while
building their own new "Windows NT"
operating system, with the intent of using
Windows 3.x as a "stepping stone"
to get users to their NT based system.

This stepping stone lasted a little
longer than they wanted, going through
95, 98 and finally ending with
Windows ME.

There was also a less common version
of Windows 3.1 bundled with Microsoft's
MS-DOS based networking software
named "Windows 3.1 for Workgroups".

Regular Windows 3.1 did not include any
networking software, but could run on top
of any DOS based network
such as DEC Pathworks, or
Microsoft Lan Manager.

An update, basically a service pack, could
be applied to Windows 3.1 that brought
the version number up to "3.11".

"Windows 3.11 for Workgroups" bundled an
integrated Windows 386-protected mode
network system, replacing the
MS-DOS version.




Windows 95:




In 1995, Windows 95 was launched.

The minimum hardware requirements for
Microsoft Windows 95:

A personal computer with a 386 or higher
processor, running the MS-DOS operating
system version 3.2 or later, or running
Microsoft Windows version 3.0 or later,
or running OS/2 version 2.0 or later
4MB of memory (8MB recommended)
At least 70MB of available hard disk
space for installation

Actual requirements may vary based on
features you choose to install.
Therefore, on a 1GB drive,
keep 100MB free.

One 3.5" high-density disk drive
VGA or higher resolution graphics card

Options, some of which are required by
applications, include:

Mouse or compatible pointing device
Modem/fax modem
Audio card/speakers for sound

Windows 95 is a big successor of Microsoft
to their Windows for Workgroups 3.xx.
It is no longer a graphic user interface
on MS-DOS, but a complete operation system.

Although users can see regular MS-DOS
window in the boot process, the system take
over MS-DOS 7.0 after it loaded completely.

The windows control in Windows 95 was
improved too.
The system box in the upper left of each
window is designed as an icon of the program.
In each window, the system box, "Minimize",
"Maximize/Restore" and "Close" are usually
located at the upper right corner.

In this version of Windows, desktop was no
longer a place to display minimized icons.
Desktop now can not only store shortcuts and
system icons such as new introduced
 "My Computer" and "Recycle Bin", but also
store files and programs.

Before Windows 95, Microsoft almost never
provided functions that could be accessed
by a right click in Windows system,
from Windows 95, right click pop-up menu
became more popular and important.

User could use right click to access
the functions of "copy", "paste" and "cut"
almost everywhere in the system.
Some functions such as "properties"
and quick "help" can also be accessed
conveniently.

Windows 95 came with an improved help
system, which added another window to
the left of the content window to show
index, and keywords.
The new help system can be displayed in
any place of the window with any kind
of size.
It also supported hyperlink with
different functions, such as
closing the help system.

Other features like Build-in network
support with dial-up for TCP/IP protocol,
support of 32-bit application, pre-emptive
multitasking and thread made
Windows 95 stronger to meet the
requirement of Internet access and
other complex tasks.



Windows XP:

On October 25, 2001, Microsoft
released Windows XP.

The "XP" stands for eXPerience.

The OS lasted longer than any
other version of Windows, from
2001 to 2007 when it was
succeeded by Windows Vista.


System Requirements:

Processor: 300MHz or higher,
Memory: 128MB RAM or higher,
Hard drive disk free space:
1.5 GB or higher
(additional 1.8 GB for Service Pack 2
& additional 900MB for Service Pack 3)


The two primary versions of
Windows XP:
Windows XP Home Edition and
Windows XP Professional.

The Home Edition was only 32-bit.
The Professional was 32-bit or 64-bit.


Windows XP included features
that was not found in previous
versions of Microsoft Windows.
XP had a new interface -
A new look and ability to change the
look.



Other features included:

Windows XP had faster start-up
and hibernation sequences.

Fast user switching Enhanced device
driver verification (driver signing).

Code enhancements (better protection
for code, less likely-hood that
somebody can come in and tamper
with key system files).

Windows File Protection which,
together with file signings, discovers
modified system files Encrypted
File System (EFS) which enabled you
to encrypt files on our hard drive
IP Security (IPSec) enables us to
encrypt data sent over computer
networks.

Clear type font rendering mechanism
(improved readability on LCD
monitors).

Built in support for CD-RW.

Windows Messaging services
Internet Connection Sharing (ICS)
which enabled you to share one
Internet connection with multiple
computers on a local area network
(LAN).

Embedded firewall
(Internet Connection Firewall – ICF)

Windows XP was designed to help
bridge the gap between Windows
9x/ME and Windows NT/2000.
The Windows XP upgrade was
available for Windows 98, ME, and
2000 users.

Windows 9x is a generic term
referring to a series of Microsoft
Windows computer operating systems
produced from 1995 to 2000,
which were based on the Windows 95
kernel and its underlying foundation of
MS-DOS, both of which were
updated in subsequent versions.
This includes all versions of Windows 95
and Windows 98. Windows Me is
sometimes included.

Windows XP uses the Windows
NT 5.1 kernel, marking the entrance
of the Windows NT core to the consumer
market, to replace the aging Windows
9x branch.

The Windows NT (New Technology)
kernel, or underlying code upon
which the interface (Explorer)
runs, was completely new and
did not rely on DOS, despite the fact
that it shared the same shell
(interface) as Windows 3.1.

Windows NT was originally designed
to be used on high-end systems
and servers, however with the
release of Windows 2000,
many consumer-oriented features from
Windows 95 and Windows 98 were
included, such as the Windows
Desktop Update, Internet Explorer 5,
USB support and Windows Media
Player.


The first versions of Windows
(1.0 through to 3.11) were graphical
shells that ran from MS-DOS.
Later on, Windows 95, though still
being based on MS-DOS, was its
own operating system, using a 16-bit
DOS-based kernel and a 32-bit user
space.


The kernel is a computer program that
is the core of a computer's operating
system, with complete control over
everything in the system.

The kernel's vital function is that it
enables the hardware and software
components to interact with each
other.
On most systems, it is one of the first
programs loaded on start-up
(after the bootloader).
It handles the rest of start-up as well
as input/output requests from
software, translating them into
data-processing instructions for the
central processing unit.

It handles memory and peripherals
like keyboards, monitors, printers,
and speakers.

In 2014, when Microsoft officially
ended support for the aging
operating system, Windows XP still
accounted for 30 percent of
operating systems worldwide.

Computers running Windows XP
will still work today, but they won't
receive any Microsoft Updates or be
able to leverage technical support.

Even though Microsoft will no
longer release Windows XP security
patches you can still protect your
computer.
But to secure your Windows XP
system you should choose a paid
version of antivirus such as Norton
Antivirus.




You can make Windows 10
look and sound like
Windows XP.


For the Windows XP Classic Start
Menu,


Go to classicshell.net

or Download Here.

Also available is XP sounds:


Download Here.

Startup Sound Changer:

Download Here.





Netscape Navigator was the dominant
web browser in the late 1990's, and
Netscape Communicator was common
with many Windows XP users for
designing websites, e-mail, and
newsgroups.

Netscape Communicator is a suite
of Internet applications designed
by Netscape and released in 1997.
Netscape Communicator included:
Netscape Navigator (browser),
Netscape Messenger ( newsgroups
& pop Email ), and Netscape

Composer (html editor).

Netscape is no longer available.
However, if you want that Windows
XP browser look and feel,
try SeaMonkey.



SeaMonkey has inherited the
successful all-in-one concept of the
original Netscape Communicator,

and it's compatible with Windows 10.

PBL's Real Cars™ website was
designed and maintained with
SeaMonkey's Composer.

For more information and even
download SeaMonkey,
Go Here.





Floppy Disks:


  Floppy disks are read and written by a
floppy disk drive (FDD).

The diskette, or floppy disk was invented
by IBM and in common use from the
mid 1970's to the late 1990's.
The first floppy disks were 8 inches, and
later in came 5.25 and 3.5-inch formats.

The first floppy disk, introduced in 1971,
had a capacity of 79.7 kB,
and was read-only.

A floppy disk is called a floppy because
the original floppies were 8 inches wide
and the disk was made out of vinyl so they
were really flimsy and "floppy" hence
came the name floppy.

The 5.25-inch diskettes were available in a
capacity of 160 KB single Side,
360 KB low-density and
1.2 MB high-density sizes.

By 1994, the 5.25-inch disk was extinct
and was replaced by the preferred
3.5-inch disks.
The 5 1/4" floppy diskette was really
floppy (flimsy), hence the name.

The 3.5-inch floppy disk format was
the last mass-produced format,
replacing 5.25-inch floppies by
the mid '90s.
It was more durable than previous
floppy formats since the packaging
was rigid plastic with a sliding
metal shutter.

Online Services long before
Facebook:


Click on logo for the old Dial-Up
looks & sound.

CompuServe

Prodigy online service

Juno online service

GEnie
(General Electric Network for
Information Exchange)
was an online service created by a
General Electric business.

A Usenet newsgroup is a repository
usually within the Usenet system, for
messages posted from many users
in different locations using Internet.

Despite the name, newsgroups are
discussion groups, and are not devoted to
publishing news, but were when the
internet was young.

Newsgroups are still around today,
but only accessed with a fee.



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