Old School Computer Stuff:

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Windows 1.0:

Windows 1.0 was released on
November 20, 1985.

CGA/Hercules/EGA (or compatible)
MS-DOS 2.0
256 KB Ram
2 double-sided disk drives or
a hard drive

Microsoft Windows computing boxes,
windows represented a fundamental aspect
of the operating system.
Instead of typing MS-DOS commands
windows 1.0 allowed users to point and
click to access the

Windows 1.0 was Microsoft's attempt at a
graphical multitasking
operating system
for the IBM PC.
Effectively a front end to
Windows 1.0 could run multiple DOS
based applications.

The system requirements for Windows 1.0:

MS-DOS 2.0, 256 kB of RAM, an EGA
graphics adapter,
two floppy disk drives
or a hard drive.



Windows 2.1:

Windows 2.1 was released on
May 27, 1988.

MS-DOS version 3.0 or later
512 K RAM
One floppy-disk and one hard disk
Graphics adapter card
Microsoft mouse is optional

Windows 3.1:

In 1992 Microsoft released version 3.1
of its MS-DOS graphical shell turned
operating system.
Windows 3.1 became the first version
of Windows to be widely distributed
with new PCs, cementing the dominance
of Microsoft's OS on the IBM PC platform and
signaling the dawn of the Golden Age
of Windows.

System requirements for standard
mode are:

* Intel 286 (or higher) processor
* 1 MB or more of memory (640K conventional
and 256K extended)

* 6.5 MB of free disk space
(9 MB is recommended)

System requirements for enhanced
mode are:

* Intel 386 (or higher) processor
* 2 MB or more of memory (640K
conventional and 1024K extended)
* 8 MB of of free disk space
(10.5 MB is recommended)

Windows 3.1 did not introduce much of
anything new over Windows 3.0.
Windows 3.1, however, was the first really
widely used version of Microsoft Windows.

Windows 1 and 2 were heavily ignored or
viewed as little more than yet another
DOS shell.

Even Microsoft's original intention
was to replace Windows 2.x with OS/2.
However, after IBM and Microsoft went
their separate ways Microsoft focused
on delivering Windows 3.x while
building their own new "Windows NT"
operating system, with the intent of using
Windows 3.x as a "stepping stone"
to get users to their NT based system.

This stepping stone lasted a little
longer than they wanted, going through
95, 98 and finally ending with
Windows ME.

There was also a less common version
of Windows 3.1 bundled with Microsoft's
MS-DOS based networking software
named "Windows 3.1 for Workgroups".

Regular Windows 3.1 did not include any
networking software, but could run on top
of any DOS based network
such as DEC Pathworks, or
Microsoft Lan Manager.

An update, basically a service pack, could
be applied to Windows 3.1 that brought
the version number up to "3.11".

"Windows 3.11 for Workgroups" bundled an
integrated Windows
386-protected mode
network system, replacing the
MS-DOS version.

Windows 95:

The minimum hardware requirements for
Microsoft Windows 95:

A personal computer with a 386 or higher
processor, running the MS-DOS operating
system version 3.2 or later, or running
Microsoft Windows version 3.0 or later,
or running OS/2 version 2.0 or later

4MB of memory (8MB recommended)
At least 70MB of available hard disk
space for installation

Actual requirements may vary based on
features you choose to install.
Therefore, on a 1GB drive,
keep 100MB free.

One 3.5" high-density disk drive
VGA or higher resolution graphics card

Options, some of which are required by
applications, include:

Mouse or compatible pointing device
Modem/fax modem
Audio card/speakers for sound

Windows 95 is a big successor of Microsoft
to their Windows for Workgroups 3.xx.
It is no longer a graphic user interface
on MS-DOS, but a complete operation system.

Although users can see regular MS-DOS
window in the boot process, the system take
over MS-DOS 7.0 after it loaded completely.

The windows control in Windows 95 was
improved too.
The system box in the upper left of each
window is designed as an icon of the program.
In each window, the system box, "Minimize",
"Maximize/Restore" and "Close" are usually
located at the upper right corner.

In this version of Windows, desktop was no
longer a place to display minimized icons.
Desktop now can not only store shortcuts and
system icons such as new introduced
 "My Computer" and "Recycle Bin", but also
store files and programs.

Before Windows 95, Microsoft almost never
provided functions that could be accessed
by a right click in Windows system,
from Windows 95, right click pop-up menu
became more popular and important.

User could use right click to access
the functions of "copy", "paste" and "cut"
almost everywhere in the system.
Some functions such as "properties"
and quick "help" can also be accessed

Windows 95 came with an improved help
system, which added another window to
the left of the content window to show
index, and keywords.
The new help system can be displayed in
any place of the window with any kind of size.
It also supported hyperlink with different
functions, such as closing the help system.

Other features like Build-in network support
with dial-up for TCP/IP protocol, support
of 32-bit application, pre-emptive
multitasking and thread made Windows 95
stronger to meet the requirement of
Internet access and other complex tasks.

Floppy Disks:

  Floppy disks are read and written by a
floppy disk drive (FDD).

The diskette, or floppy disk was invented
by IBM and in common use from the
mid-1970s to the late 1990s.
The first floppy disks were 8 inches, and
later in came 5.25 and 3.5-inch formats.

The first floppy disk, introduced in 1971,
had a capacity of 79.7 kB,
and was read-only.

A floppy disk is called a floppy because
the original floppies were 8 inches wide
and the disk was made out of vinyl so they
were really flimsy and "floppy" hence
came the name floppy.

The 5.25-inch diskettes were available in a
capacity of 160 KB single Side,
360 KB low-density and
1.2 MB high-density sizes.

By 1994, the 5.25-inch disk was extinct
and was replaced by the preferred
3.5-inch disks.
The 5 1/4" floppy diskette was really floppy
(flimsy), hence the name.

The 3.5-inch floppy disk format was
the last mass-produced format,
replacing 5.25-inch floppies by
the mid '90s.
It was more durable than previous floppy
formats since the
packaging was rigid plastic
with a sliding metal shutter.

Online Services long before

Click on logo for the old Dial-Up
looks & sound.


Prodigy online service

Juno online service

(General Electric Network for Information Exchange)
an online service created by a
General Electric business.

A Usenet newsgroup is a repository usually
within the Usenet system, for messages posted
from many users in different locations
using Internet.

Despite the name, newsgroups are
discussion groups, and are not devoted to
publishing news, but were when the
internet was young.

Newsgroups are still around today,
but only accessed
with a fee.

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