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A brougham (pronounced 'brohm'
with “foam" or
'broh -uhm') was originally
a car body style where the driver sat outside
and passengers seated within an enclosed
cabin, as per the earlier brougham
Originally used for a single horse drawn enclosed carriage
for 2-4 people, the use of the word “brougham” in regards to
transportation hails back to the early to mid-1800’s
Lord Henry Peter Brougham of England commissioned the
design of a carriage with a front mounted window.
Henry Peter Brougham
(1778 - 1868)
He designed the carriage that would be light and
needing just one horse and a coachman ideal for use on
particularly popular with middle and upper class
families, and became the everyday carriages of the wealthy.
It had a front window passengers could see out of;
its low step design made access and egress for
easy; it was the first carriage to have elliptical springs,
steel springs that made the ride smoother,
more stable, and thus safer.
Plus, the front wheels were capable of making
sharper and tighter
turns than any other 4-wheeled carriages.
Outside, at the front
for the coachman, was a boxed seat or perch,
known as a dickey box, also called a boot, that could
another passenger, such as a footman.
A footman normally
used to run alongside the carriages, performed
duties like laying and waiting tables, opening and
running errands and much more.
Small 2-seat Broughams, were called ‘Pill Boxes’, as they
favored by doctors.
They were also called 'Bachelor' Broughams.
As a car body style,
a brougham was initially a vehicle similar
to a limousine but with an outside seat in front for
and an enclosed cabin behind for the
As such, it was a version of the town car but, in strict use
term, with the sharply squared rear end of the roof and the
curving body line at the base of the front of the passenger
enclosure that were characteristic of the 1800's
carriage on which the car style was based.
Cadillac was the
first to use the name "Brougham" on a vehicle
that did not use the Brougham body style for
1916 Cadillac Brougham, a large
Cadillac began offering Fleetwood built bodies on
some of its cars, the Brougham body style was incorporated
into the design.
Fleetwood Metal Body was an automobile coachbuilder
on April 1, 1909.
Its name derives from Fleetwood, Pennsylvania,
home of the company at the start, and lived on for
decades in the form of the Cadillac Fleetwood and various
Fleetwood trim lines on Cadillac cars.
In 1930, the Brougham name was
given to a car body style that
had an open chauffeur compartment and an enclosed
Town car / town brougham:
A coupé de ville with rear doors for the passenger area, no
or sides for the driver's area, and a partition between the
passengers and the driver was referred to as a "town car"
or "town brougham".
Town cars normally had side windows in the doors only.
In 1928, Ford introduced a town car body to its
Model A line,
the Model A town car was sold until early 1930.
In 1930, 1,065 Model A town cars were built by the
In 1940 and 1941, a limited edition model of
the Cadillac Sixty Special
carried the Town Car name.
It was reintroduced as a coupe hardtop in 1949 using
the French name
for the body style Coupe DeVille and in 1956 as a
called the Sedan DeVille.
The 1957 Cadillac Series 70 Eldorado Brougham joined
Sixty Special and the Series 75 as the only Cadillac models
with Fleetwood bodies although Fleetwood script or crests
did not appear anywhere on the exterior of the car, and so
would also mark the first time in 20 years that a Fleetwood
bodied car was paired with the Brougham name.
In 1957, only 400 Eldorado
Broughams were made
and just 304 were built in 1958.
1958 - 1961, Cadillac used the
sub-designation for its exclusive 4-door Eldorado
In 1965, the "Brougham" name was first attached to "Fleetwood"
on the Fleetwood Sixty Special as an upgraded option
which included a vinyl roof and special "Brougham" script
lettering on the sides, but it was not a separate model.
In 1966, the Fleetwood Brougham was added as a
The Brougham name was an option package on the
1965 Cadillac Sixty Special.
The following year the Brougham moved up to
sub-series of the Fleetwood Sixty Special, which
continued through 1970.
From 1970's - 1990's,
"Brougham" was used as a trim level
by General Motors, Ford Motor Company, and the
In 1971, the Sixty Special was
only available as the well
equipped Fleetwood Sixty Special Brougham.
In 1977, the Sixty Special
Series retired, the Cadillac
Fleetwood Brougham took its place as Cadillac's largest
owner-driven sedan model through 1986.
The single name "Brougham" began to be used as specific
model in 1987, when the term "Fleetwood" was dropped
from the former Fleetwood Brougham.
In 1988, the "Premier Formal
Vinyl Roof" option became
available which gave the standard Brougham a very
The last Cadillac Brougham
rolled off the
assembly line on June 5, 1992.
The Fleetwood name returned as a RWD model with a major
redesign for 1993 (the FWD Fleetwood had been
Special that year) and Brougham again became an
option package, as it had been in 1965.